This multi-site study will test the efficacy of an intervention to train and equip pharmacists to provide naloxone, an overdose antidote, to patients using prescribed and illicit opioids, to improve opioid safety and prevent opioid-involved adverse events. The study will carry out a stepped-wedge, cluster randomized trial implemented over five waves, within two chain community pharmacies across four states with varying pharmacy-based naloxone distribution laws: Oregon, Washington, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire. Our specific study aims are to: 1) integrate two successful demonstration research projects into one cohesive educational program (MOON+), 2) evaluate the effectiveness of MOON + on naloxone-related outcomes, and 3) use mixed methods to further explore the impact and implementation of MOON+ and associated factors (e.g., state policy, store policy, region).



Eligible Ages
Over 18 Years
Eligible Genders
Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Inclusion Criteria

  • English speaking, age 18 years or older, a pharmacist or pharmacy manager employed half time or more by CVS Pharmacy in Massachusetts or New Hampshire or by Albertsons Companies in Washington or Oregon

Exclusion Criteria

  • none

Study Design

Study Type
Intervention Model
Single Group Assignment
Intervention Model Description
Stepped-wedge cluster randomized design
Primary Purpose
Health Services Research
None (Open Label)

Arm Groups

ArmDescriptionAssigned Intervention
MOON+ includes pharmacist online training on opioid safety and naloxone provision, academic detailing of the pharmacy, materials for use at the pharmacy, standardized overdose response safety protocols, and reminder tools for training reinforcement
  • Behavioral: MOON+
    MOON+ is an intervention to support the pharmacy and pharmacist to improve opioid safety and naloxone provision. Materials include educational trainings, materials for use with pharmacists, information for patients, and materials for standardizing overdose safety at the pharmacy

Recruiting Locations

Boston Medical Center
Boston, Massachusetts 02118
Traci Green, PhD, MSc

More Details

Boston Medical Center

Study Contact

Traci C Green, PhD, MSc
617 909 9919

Detailed Description

The purpose of this study is to integrate two pharmacy-focused educational interventions designed to increase pharmacy based naloxone (PBN) dispensing and improve opioid safety. The intervention is comprised of two successful demonstration research projects (RESPOND, PI: Hartung; MOON, PI: Green), which include online and one-on-one educational outreach (i.e. academic detailing) demonstrated to provide knowledge and training for pharmacists to identify and effectively engage with patients who may be at high-risk for an opioid overdose. This study tests the combined interventions' effectiveness at improving opioid safety engagement and naloxone-related outcomes in community pharmacies. The following primary specific aims will drive this research: For Aim 1: The research team and study pharmacy partners will work collaboratively to integrate MOON and RESPOND into MOON+, including the creation of a website to host intervention components. Feedback from community partners and pharmacy professional associations will be sought to finalize the MOON+ content and materials. For Aim 2: We will conduct a stepped wedge, cluster randomized design in 160 pharmacies throughout Oregon, Washington, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire. Implementation will occur across five waves, each of which will include a baseline survey, toolkit orientation session, academic detailing, an online course, and access to printed onsite materials (algorithm, checklists, stickers, posters). The targeted population is pharmacists and pharmacy managers in CVS pharmacies (MA and NH) and Albertsons Companies (OR and WA) across the study states and who volunteer to participate in the educational intervention. We will recruit 40 pharmacies per state, 160 pharmacies total, providing a sample of approximately 450 pharmacist participants. Each store will have a pharmacy champion (a pharmacist or pharmacy manager), who will be the point of contact for the intervention. Only pharmacies with a consenting pharmacy champion will be eligible for the study; pharmacists at those sites may opt to participate. Data collection will occur at baseline, 6-, and 12-month follow-up, using surveys (pharmacist-level), store dispensing data and daily faxed counts of naloxone encounters (store-level). Note that no identifiable health information about the patients will be collected in these forms, only basic counts and communication descriptors. The follow up surveys for pharmacists consist of brief questionnaires about the training, attitudes and perceptions of naloxone and naloxone dispensing, sale of syringes over the counter, and dispensing of buprenorphine. For Aim 3: We will use a mixed methods approach to identify facilitators and barriers (e.g. state-specific policies, store policies, region) to intervention implementation and effectiveness. Methods will include an environmental scan of extant laws and policies, fidelity checking, pharmacist focus groups (n=50), and interviews with patients who have received or would be eligible for receiving naloxone (n=17).


Study information shown on this site is derived from ClinicalTrials.gov (a public registry operated by the National Institutes of Health). The listing of studies provided is not certain to be all studies for which you might be eligible. Furthermore, study eligibility requirements can be difficult to understand and may change over time, so it is wise to speak with your medical care provider and individual research study teams when making decisions related to participation.