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194 matching studies

Sponsor Condition of Interest
Walking and mHealth to Increase Participation in Parkinson Disease
Boston University Charles River Campus Parkinson Disease
Identifying effective ways to improve function, slow decline and reduce disability is a high priority for people living with Parkinson disease and other chronic conditions. Regular participation in walking is essential to reduce disability and enhance participation in preferred... expand

Identifying effective ways to improve function, slow decline and reduce disability is a high priority for people living with Parkinson disease and other chronic conditions. Regular participation in walking is essential to reduce disability and enhance participation in preferred life activities. However, people with chronic conditions are often sedentary, contributing to greater disability. The goal of this work is to determine the benefits of a walking, walking enhancing exercises and cognitive-behavioral strategies delivered using mobile health technology for people with Parkinson disease over a sustained period of time.

Type: Interventional

Start Date: Feb 2019

open study

Digital Tomosynthesis Mammography and Digital Mammography in Screening Patients for Breast Cancer
ECOG-ACRIN Cancer Research Group Breast Screening
This randomized phase III trial studies digital tomosynthesis mammography and digital mammography in screening patients for breast cancer. Screening for breast cancer with tomosynthesis mammography may be superior to digital mammography for breast cancer screening and may... expand

This randomized phase III trial studies digital tomosynthesis mammography and digital mammography in screening patients for breast cancer. Screening for breast cancer with tomosynthesis mammography may be superior to digital mammography for breast cancer screening and may help reduce the need for additional imaging or treatment.

Type: Interventional

Start Date: Jul 2017

open study

DECAMP-2: Screening of Patients With Early Stage Lung Cancer or at High Risk for Developing Lung Cancer
Boston University Pulmonary Disease
The goal of this project is to improve lung cancer screening in high-risk individuals by identifying biomarkers of preclinical disease and disease risk that are measured in minimally invasive and non-invasive biospecimens. Existing biomarkers for lung cancer diagnosis as well... expand

The goal of this project is to improve lung cancer screening in high-risk individuals by identifying biomarkers of preclinical disease and disease risk that are measured in minimally invasive and non-invasive biospecimens. Existing biomarkers for lung cancer diagnosis as well as new biomarkers discovered specifically in this clinical setting will be examined. Biomarkers that identify individuals at highest risk for being diagnosed with lung cancer prior to the appearance of concerning symptoms could increase the utility of lung cancer surveillance and the efficiency of lung cancer chemoprevention clinical trials. Achieving these goals would improve the detection and treatment of early stage and incipient lung cancer, while restricting the risk of these procedures to those individuals who currently exhibit the early molecular warning signs of impending disease.

Type: Observational

Start Date: Sep 2011

open study

Robotic Exosuit Augmented Locomotion (REAL) in the Clinic and Community
Boston University Charles River Campus Stroke
Previous studies of the exosuit technology have culminated in strong evidence for the gait-restorative effects of soft robotic exosuits for patients post-stroke by means of substitution for lost function. The present study builds on this work by suggesting that an exosuit's... expand

Previous studies of the exosuit technology have culminated in strong evidence for the gait-restorative effects of soft robotic exosuits for patients post-stroke by means of substitution for lost function. The present study builds on this work by suggesting that an exosuit's immediate gait-restorative effects can be leveraged during high intensity gait training to produce long-lasting gait restoration. Current gait training efforts are focused on either quality or intensity. They focus on gait quality often by reducing the training intensity to allow patients to achieve a more normal gait. In contrast, efforts focused on training intensity push participants without focusing on the quality of their movements. These intervention paradigms generally fail to substantially impact community mobility. In this study, the investigators posit that exosuits can uniquely enable an integration of these paradigms (ie, high intensity gait training that promotes quality of movements). For this protocol, exosuits developed in collaboration with an industry partner, ReWalk™ Robotics will be used. To evaluate the effects of REAL gait training, the investigators will use clinical measures of motor and gait function, locomotor mechanics and energetics, and physiologic measures that may infer on motor learning. The spectrum of behavioral and physiologic data that we will collect will enable us to understand more comprehensively the gait-restorative effects of REAL. This study is a single-arm mechanistic clinical trial that will examine clinical and physiological factors that determine response to the intervention. This study will assist in informing best candidates and outcomes for future randomized controlled trials.

Type: Interventional

Start Date: Mar 2022

open study

Posterior cerebraL ArTery Occlusion Study
Boston Medical Center Stroke, Acute Ischemic
For this retrospective study, the investigators will collect and analyze data of patients who presented with posterior artery occlusion and underwent mechanical thrombectomy (the type of endovascular stroke treatment) and intravenous thrombolysis (the type of non-endovascular... expand

For this retrospective study, the investigators will collect and analyze data of patients who presented with posterior artery occlusion and underwent mechanical thrombectomy (the type of endovascular stroke treatment) and intravenous thrombolysis (the type of non-endovascular stroke treatment). The electronic health records will be queried for the demographic, medical history, and outcomes data of all patients with posterior cerebral artery occlusion who underwent mechanical thrombectomy, intravenous thrombolysis (IVT), or medical management.

Type: Observational

Start Date: Jan 2022

open study

Birth Control to Improve Birth Spacing
Brigham and Women's Hospital Contraception Contraception Behavior Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice Birth Spacing
This study aims to investigate the drivers of postpartum contraceptive use with a prospective cohort. The study will clarify the role of contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, norms, and self-efficacy in driving intention to initiate contraception postpartum and describe the... expand

This study aims to investigate the drivers of postpartum contraceptive use with a prospective cohort. The study will clarify the role of contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, norms, and self-efficacy in driving intention to initiate contraception postpartum and describe the impact of environmental barriers on enacting intended postpartum contraception initiation.

Type: Observational

Start Date: Feb 2022

open study

Imaging Brain Fluids During Breathing
Boston University Charles River Campus Healthy
This study will perform magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements of hemodynamics and cerebrospinal fluid flow across breathing tasks and during breath-locked neuromodulation. expand

This study will perform magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements of hemodynamics and cerebrospinal fluid flow across breathing tasks and during breath-locked neuromodulation.

Type: Interventional

Start Date: Jan 2022

open study

Process-Based Therapy in an Outpatient Setting
Boston University Charles River Campus Anxiety Depression
The proposed study aims to examine the effects of process-based therapy on 6 adult patients presenting for treatment at a university community outpatient clinic using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline design. expand

The proposed study aims to examine the effects of process-based therapy on 6 adult patients presenting for treatment at a university community outpatient clinic using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline design.

Type: Interventional

Start Date: Nov 2021

open study

Supporting Sustained HIV Treatment Adherence After Initiation
Boston University HIV Infections Adherence, Medication
The investigators will implement a 24-month fractional factorial design study (Aim 1). The investigators will recruit 510 patients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) at three City of Cape Town ART clinics. Each patient will have adherence monitored using the Wisepill®... expand

The investigators will implement a 24-month fractional factorial design study (Aim 1). The investigators will recruit 510 patients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) at three City of Cape Town ART clinics. Each patient will have adherence monitored using the Wisepill® electronic adherence monitoring device (EAM). After eligibility has been confirmed, each participant will be randomized to one of 16 experimental conditions. Each condition includes a unique combination of five adherence intervention components. Three of these components focus on identifying individuals with poor adherence, with increasing degrees of sophistication, with immediate linkage to adherence support. Two components focus on supporting good adherence. They both supplement the existing adherence support program delivered at the study clinics operated by City of Cape Town (standard of care component). Based on Self-Determination Theory, the investigators postulate these intervention components will: 1) enhance feelings of autonomy support, social support, and knowledge; 2) improve motivation and self-competence; and 3) increase ART retention, adherence, and viral suppression. A subset of the participants, as well as clinic staff, will be invited to in-depth interviews to explore mediating factors (Aim 1) and the implementation process (Aim 2); and the data collected in Aims 1 and 2 will be used to explore cost effectiveness (Aim 3).

Type: Interventional

Start Date: Mar 2022

open study

EXHIT ENTRE Implementation Trial of High Intensity Versus Low Intensity Strategy
Hennepin Healthcare Research Institute Substance Use Disorders Opioid Use Disorder, Severe Opioid Use Disorder, Moderate
This study is a multi-site, cluster randomized, two group implementation trial comparing a low- versus high-intensity implementation strategy for supporting hospital-based opioid use disorder treatment (HBOT) in community hospital settings where medication for opioid use disorder... expand

This study is a multi-site, cluster randomized, two group implementation trial comparing a low- versus high-intensity implementation strategy for supporting hospital-based opioid use disorder treatment (HBOT) in community hospital settings where medication for opioid use disorder (MOUD) treatment has not been implemented.

Type: Interventional

Start Date: Oct 2021

open study

Optimization and Multi-Site Feasibility of Yoga for Chronic Pain in People in YOGAMAT-II - Phase II
Butler Hospital Opioid Use Chronic Pain
Phase 2 - Multiphase Optimization Strategy (MOST) Optimization Phase: 1. To conduct a factorial experiment that will allow us to evaluate the impact of each of the 4 intervention components on yoga dosage received. We will enroll a total n=192. All participants... expand

Phase 2 - Multiphase Optimization Strategy (MOST) Optimization Phase: 1. To conduct a factorial experiment that will allow us to evaluate the impact of each of the 4 intervention components on yoga dosage received. We will enroll a total n=192. All participants will receive the core yoga intervention, with random assignment to the four intervention components outlined above. 2. Use results from Phase 2 to choose an efficient combination of intervention components that, together with standard yoga classes, maximizes yoga dosage. 3. Examine mechanisms by which components are hypothesized to work.

Type: Interventional

Start Date: Feb 2022

open study

Social Media and Risk Reduction Teaching-Enhanced Reach
Boston University Breastfeeding SUID SIDS
This study aims to improve adherence to American Academy of Pediatrics safe sleep (SS) recommendations and improve rates of initiation and duration of partial and exclusive breastfeeding (BF) through direct education of mothers using Mobile Health (mHealth) technologies (ex.... expand

This study aims to improve adherence to American Academy of Pediatrics safe sleep (SS) recommendations and improve rates of initiation and duration of partial and exclusive breastfeeding (BF) through direct education of mothers using Mobile Health (mHealth) technologies (ex. text messaging).

Type: Interventional

Start Date: Jan 2022

open study

Improving Working Memory in Older Adults
Boston University Charles River Campus Large-scale Physiological Foundations of Memory Decline in Aging Humans
The research program will evaluate the theoretical claim that age-related memory and cognitive decline in humans result from the inefficient orchestration of rhythmic activity within large-scale cortical networks. The results will contribute to the basic science groundwork... expand

The research program will evaluate the theoretical claim that age-related memory and cognitive decline in humans result from the inefficient orchestration of rhythmic activity within large-scale cortical networks. The results will contribute to the basic science groundwork for developing future non-pharmacological interventions aimed at boosting memory and cognition in aging and clinical populations.

Type: Interventional

Start Date: Sep 2019

open study

Hyperglycemia in Neurosurgery
Boston Medical Center Hyperglycemia Postoperative Infection
Poor glycemic control is recognized as a risk factor for postoperative infection. For the neurosurgical patient, postoperative infection can lead to devastating complications such as meningitis, encephalitis and death. Neurosurgical patients often receive high doses of medications... expand

Poor glycemic control is recognized as a risk factor for postoperative infection. For the neurosurgical patient, postoperative infection can lead to devastating complications such as meningitis, encephalitis and death. Neurosurgical patients often receive high doses of medications that increase blood glucose levels such as steroids, placing them at a potentially higher risk for postoperative infection. The purpose of this multisite observational study is to assess the impact of severe intraoperative hyperglycemia as a risk factor for postoperative infection in the neurosurgical patient.

Type: Observational

Start Date: May 2021

open study

Conversation Group Treatment for Aphasia: Does it Work?
Boston University Charles River Campus Aphasia, Acquired
The proposed research will test the efficacy of group conversation treatment for people with aphasia and explore whether the effects of treatment differ as a result of the following factors: 1. Group size: Do large groups of 6-8 people with aphasia or dyads of 2 people... expand

The proposed research will test the efficacy of group conversation treatment for people with aphasia and explore whether the effects of treatment differ as a result of the following factors: 1. Group size: Do large groups of 6-8 people with aphasia or dyads of 2 people with aphasia demonstrate different levels of improvement with this treatment? 2. Group composition: Do effects of conversation group treatment differ if the groups include members with similar or different types of aphasia? 3. Aphasia severity: Do effects of conversation group treatment differ if the individuals within the group have mild-moderate or moderate-severe profiles of aphasia? Treatment sessions will occur in groups of 6-8 people with aphasia or with 2 people with aphasia. During treatment sessions, discourse will be facilitated on a focused set of every day topics, such as current events or travel. Linguistic and multi modal cueing hierarchies will be tailored to individual client goals and used to maximize communication success. The prediction is that conversation treatment is an effective method for improving communication in people with aphasia, but that specific benefits may differ based on variables such as group size, group composition, and aphasia severity. The results will help inform best practices for aphasia treatment and refine a hypothesized model about the mechanisms underlying conversation treatment.

Type: Interventional

Start Date: Apr 2022

open study

Assessment of the Efficacy of Digital CBT for Anxiety in Adults With Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain
Boston University Charles River Campus Pain, Chronic Pain, Musculoskeletal Anxiety
The present study involves a randomized clinical trial of Digital Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (dCBT) targeting worry and anxiety symptoms in a population with chronic pain and clinical levels of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms. The clinical trial calls for the... expand

The present study involves a randomized clinical trial of Digital Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (dCBT) targeting worry and anxiety symptoms in a population with chronic pain and clinical levels of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms. The clinical trial calls for the recruitment and randomization of 80 individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain and clinical levels of GAD symptoms to either a dCBT program or a waitlist (Control) condition. The current research represents the first-step investigation of a treatment strategy with the potential to enhance care for patients with chronic pain by introducing a scalable, affordable, and system-friendly digital intervention (dCBT) that targets a prominent source of distress and associated disability in these patients. The investigators propose that by targeting GAD in chronic pain in a way that does not tax engagement in ongoing medical care provision, there is the potential to improve the uptake of effective care and to address both GAD and associated distress and disability.

Type: Interventional

Start Date: Feb 2022

open study

Photobiomodulation to Improve Cognition in TBI, With fMRI
Boston VA Research Institute, Inc. Traumatic Brain Injury Closed Head Injury Cognitive Dysfunction
The purpose of this small, research study is to examine effectiveness of an at-home application of an experimental intervention, on thinking and memory in mild-moderate, closed-head, traumatic brain injury cases. The experimental intervention is light-emitting diode (LED)... expand

The purpose of this small, research study is to examine effectiveness of an at-home application of an experimental intervention, on thinking and memory in mild-moderate, closed-head, traumatic brain injury cases. The experimental intervention is light-emitting diode (LED) therapy, which is applied to the scalp and through the nose using a head frame device. Participants are expected to complete two, 5-week series of LED treatments, at home, 3 times a week. There will be a 1-month period between the two series. Each home treatment is 20 minutes. Participants will be trained to use the head frame device, in-office. The head frame device falls within the FDA category General Wellness, low-risk devices, and no medical claims are made. A two-hour paper and pencil testing (4 visits) and a one-hour MRI (3 visits) will be administered before and after each treatment series. Participants may be in the study for about 4 months. This study is supported by Vielight, Inc., Hayward, CA/ Toronto, Canada

Type: Interventional

Start Date: Aug 2019

open study

Diabetes eConsult Non-Inferiority Study
Boston Medical Center Diabetes
Flash glucose monitoring is an FDA-approved and widely clinically available, glucose monitoring technology that is worn on the body and measures glucose values every 15 minutes, storing this data for up to 14 days. The Freestyle Libre Pro is already used as a diagnostic technology... expand

Flash glucose monitoring is an FDA-approved and widely clinically available, glucose monitoring technology that is worn on the body and measures glucose values every 15 minutes, storing this data for up to 14 days. The Freestyle Libre Pro is already used as a diagnostic technology in clinical care. It provides a full 24-hour glucose profile for each day that the sensor is worn and that can be correlated with daily activities, medication administration, food intake, and other factors that are contextually relevant in meeting glycemic goals for an individual patient. In this study, patients referred to Endocrinology for specialty diabetes care will be randomized to an in-person visit as is typically done or to wear the Freestyle Libre Pro placed by staff at their primary care clinic. Patients who wear the Freestyle Libre Pro will have a professional interpretation of their glucose data completed by an endocrinologist as well as a remote eConsult completed using this glucose data and information from their medical record. The recommendations from the eConsult regarding medication and lifestyle adjustment as well as potential referral on to see Endocrinology will be implemented by the primary care physician at their clinical discretion. The investigators will utilize glycemic measures including hemoglobin A1c, number of clinical visits (outpatient, inpatient and emergency department) for diabetes care, patient reported outcomes including self-efficacy, and patient and provider assessments of burden to determine if eConsults utilizing flash glucose monitoring technology are non-inferior to in-person visits with a diabetes specialist.

Type: Interventional

Start Date: Feb 2020

open study

Robotic Exosuit Augmented Locomotion (REAL)
Lou Awad, PT, DPT, PhD Stroke
Previous studies of the exosuit technology have culminated in strong evidence for the gait-restorative effects of soft robotic exosuits for patients post-stroke by means of substitution for lost function. The present study builds on this work by suggesting that an exosuit's... expand

Previous studies of the exosuit technology have culminated in strong evidence for the gait-restorative effects of soft robotic exosuits for patients post-stroke by means of substitution for lost function. The present study builds on this work by suggesting that an exosuit's immediate gait-restorative effects can be leveraged during high intensity gait training to produce long-lasting gait restoration. Current gait training efforts are focused on either quality or intensity. They focus on gait quality often by reducing the training intensity to allow patients to achieve a more normal gait. In contrast, efforts focused on training intensity push participants without focusing on the quality of their movements. These intervention paradigms generally fail to substantially impact community mobility. In this study, the investigators posit that exosuits can uniquely enable an integration of these paradigms (ie, high intensity gait training that promotes quality of movements). For this protocol, exosuits developed in collaboration with an industry partner, ReWalk™ Robotics will be used. To evaluate the effects of REAL gait training, the investigators will use clinical measures of motor and gait function, locomotor mechanics and energetics, and physiologic measures that may infer on motor learning. The spectrum of behavioral and physiologic data that we will collect will enable us to understand more comprehensively the gait-restorative effects of REAL.

Type: Interventional

Start Date: Feb 2021

open study

Effects of Soft Robotic Exosuit on Exercise Capacity, Biomakers of Neuroplasticity, and Motor Learning...
Boston University Charles River Campus Stroke
High intensity exercise is known to improve a person's ability to learn new motor skills. The goal of this project is to evaluate if a robotic exosuit can help people who have had a stroke perform walking rehabilitation at higher intensities than they are able to without the... expand

High intensity exercise is known to improve a person's ability to learn new motor skills. The goal of this project is to evaluate if a robotic exosuit can help people who have had a stroke perform walking rehabilitation at higher intensities than they are able to without the exosuit. The investigators will measure exercise training intensity, biomarkers of neuroplasticity (e.g., brain-derived neurotrophic factor; BDNF), and motor learning when people poststroke exercise with and without the exosuit. For this protocol, exosuits developed in collaboration with ReWalk™ Robotics will be used. Aim 1: Determine the effects of a soft robotic exosuit on gait training intensity and serum BDNF in persons post-stroke completing a single bout of high intensity walking. Hypothesis 1: Exosuits will allow individuals post-stroke to (i) walk at higher intensities or (ii) walk at a high intensity for longer durations. Hypothesis 2: Training at a higher intensity, or training at high intensity for longer durations, will result in increased serum BDNF. Aim 2: Determine the effects of a soft robotic exosuit on gait biomechanics measured after a single bout of high intensity walking with versus without a soft robotic exosuit. Hypothesis 3: A single bout of high intensity walking with an exosuit will lead to demonstrably better gait biomechanics than a single bout of high intensity exercise without an exosuit.

Type: Interventional

Start Date: Jul 2021

open study

Maternal Newborn Health Registry
NICHD Global Network for Women's and Children's Health Pregnancy Outcome Trends in Low-resource Geographic Areas
The primary purpose of this population-based study is to quantify and understand the trends in pregnancy outcomes in defined low-resource geographic areas over time, in order to provide population-based data on stillbirths, neonatal and maternal mortality. expand

The primary purpose of this population-based study is to quantify and understand the trends in pregnancy outcomes in defined low-resource geographic areas over time, in order to provide population-based data on stillbirths, neonatal and maternal mortality.

Type: Observational

Start Date: May 2008

open study

PC001- A Study to Evaluate the Usability of PointCheck
Leuko Labs, Inc. Neoplasms Neutropenia
This a study about the usability of PointCheck a novel non-invasive technology for monitoring chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. The study will include patients with cancer visiting the outpatient hematology clinic for their standard of care chemotherapy administration. A... expand

This a study about the usability of PointCheck a novel non-invasive technology for monitoring chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. The study will include patients with cancer visiting the outpatient hematology clinic for their standard of care chemotherapy administration. A final sample size of 90 oncologic outpatients will be enrolled and studied with the technology. The main objective is to evaluate the usability of PointCheck. Secondary outcomes include a preliminary assessment of PointCheck diagnostic accuracy and precision. For this, study subjects will be tested twice with PointCheck during the same session and the usability in an at-home simulated environment by naïve users will be evaluated

Type: Interventional

Start Date: Feb 2021

open study

Testing the Effectiveness of Mainstream Management Tools to Increase Organizational Commitment and Job...
Boston University Charles River Campus Mental Health Work Related Stress
The role of peer support specialists (PSS) has burgeoned in the mental health field. Peer support specialists are individuals with a psychiatric condition who are in recovery and who are employed to provide various kinds of tangible and other supports to individuals with psychiatric... expand

The role of peer support specialists (PSS) has burgeoned in the mental health field. Peer support specialists are individuals with a psychiatric condition who are in recovery and who are employed to provide various kinds of tangible and other supports to individuals with psychiatric conditions, generally in public mental health programs. Partially because of the newness of this role, PSS experience confusion about their role and tasks as well as conflict with other mental health providers who are uncertain about how to utilize PSS effectively in services. This project was designed to bring a coaching service to PSS to assist them to address challenges in their job. The investigators will conduct a randomized control trial to evaluate a novel coaching, Coaching and Advancement for Peer Providers (CAPP). Our hypotheses are that individuals participating in the CAPP intervention will experience a reduction in burnout, role confusion, and intention to leave their job or the field. Participants in CAPP will also experience an increase in job satisfaction, role clarity and organizational commitment.

Type: Interventional

Start Date: May 2021

open study

Alcohol Use and Chronic Pain Among Primary Care Patients
Boston University Charles River Campus Alcohol Drinking Chronic Pain
Chronic pain and unhealthy drinking are common co-occurring conditions among patients presenting to primary care. Given their impact on functioning and medical outcomes, there would be considerable benefit to developing an accessible, easily utilized, integrative approach... expand

Chronic pain and unhealthy drinking are common co-occurring conditions among patients presenting to primary care. Given their impact on functioning and medical outcomes, there would be considerable benefit to developing an accessible, easily utilized, integrative approach to reduce unhealthy alcohol use and pain that can be readily incorporated into the primary care setting. The objective of this study is to test a smartphone-based intervention for reducing unhealthy alcohol use and pain in primary care patients, determine the feasibility of implementing this intervention in the primary care setting, provide effect size estimates of the intervention on drinking and chronic pain outcomes.

Type: Interventional

Start Date: Aug 2021

open study

Web Based Orthopaedic Sports Medicine Registry
Arthrex, Inc. Degenerative and Traumatic Pathology of the Knee Degenerative and Traumatic Pathology of the Shoulder and Elbow Degenerative and Traumatic Pathology of the Foot and Ankle Degenerative and Traumatic Pathology of the Hand and Wrist Degenerative and Traumatic Pathology of the Hip
The purpose of this study is to establish an international, web based clinical registry to collect baseline characteristics of patients undergoing orthopaedic, sports medicine, arthroscopy, and related surgery, and the subsequent outcomes and cost-effectiveness associated... expand

The purpose of this study is to establish an international, web based clinical registry to collect baseline characteristics of patients undergoing orthopaedic, sports medicine, arthroscopy, and related surgery, and the subsequent outcomes and cost-effectiveness associated with the surgical procedures and nonoperative treatments.

Type: Observational [Patient Registry]

Start Date: Sep 2010

open study